Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar, an island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeast coast of Africa, at the height of Mozambique. it is also the largest island in Africa and the fourth largest in the world. it is separated from the mainland by the Mozambique Channel. it is noteworthy that the island was once joined to Africa, which was separated. This led to the isolation and cause many unique species in the world. thus, home to 58% of animal and plant species in the world (of which 80% are endemic to Madagascar). of the more notable are the lemur infra-order of which are primates, the carnivorous fossa, three endemic bird families and six endemic baobab. it is within the list of mega-diverse countries.
Madagascar is located in the tropical climate of the South Equatorial Current. the precipitation in continuously from east to southwest. Rain fall on the west coast is sometimes only 500 millimeters per year, while it may be on the east coast region once before 4000 mm. the average annual temperature is 25 degrees celsius. Higher temperatures are on the coasts, but in inland highlands temperatures can fall below the freezing point.
Due to its long geographical isolation, Madagascar is home to a unique fauna and flora with a very high proportion of endemic species. before the arrival of the first settlers the island was probably almost completely forested. the coastal zones are covered by tropical lowland rainforest. of the original rain forests, only 4% are obtained. the largest contiguous areas of rainforest that still exist, lie on the Masoala peninsula. from east to west, the rain forest passes gradually over the savannah in the dry and in the south and thorn savanna.